Current progress in antimalarial pharmacotherapy and multi-target drug discovery
Discovery and development of antimalarial drugs have long been dominated by single-target therapy. Continuous effort has been made to explore and identify different targets in malaria parasite crucial for the malaria treatment. The single-target drug therapy was initially successful, but it was later supplanted by combination therapy with multiple drugs to overcome drug resistance. Emergence of resistant strains even against the combination therapy has warranted a review of current antimalarial pharmacotherapy. This has led to the development of the new concept of covalent biotherapy, in which two or more pharmacophores are chemically bound to produce hybrid antimalarial drugs with multi-target functionalities. Herein, the review initially details the current pharmacotherapy for malaria as well as the conventional and novel targets of importance identified in the malaria parasite. Then, the rationale of multi-targeted therapy for malaria, approaches taken to develop the multi-target antimalarial hybrids, and the examples of hybrid molecules are comprehensively enumerated and discussed.