Ethiopia's health system

Photo: Female African scientist


The primary malaria diagnosis and treatment service provision in Ethiopia is through the public health facility.  By the end of 2018/19, Ethiopia had: 

  • 17,162 Health post (HPs) 
  • 3,678 health centres (HCs)  
  • 314 hospitals  

In the same year, 425 HPs, 86 HCs and 108 hospitals were under construction. In 2019/20, 98.5% of the total diagnosed and 40% of the treated malaria cases were at both health centres and hospitals. 


There are three levels of private health facilities.  

  • Primary: Primary and medium clinics  
  • Secondary: Specialty clinics, specialty centres, and general hospitals  
  • Tertiary: Specialised hospitals  

All private health facilities except primary clinics should have a microscope and should be able to test for malaria. In 2015, 24%  of mothers took their children under five years of age with fever to a private health facility.  

The Ethiopia Malaria Elimination Strategic Plan 2021–2025 identified limited engagement of private health facilities in malaria program implementation and put in place a plan to increase engagement of the private sector. The National Malaria Elimination Programme guidance for malaria diagnosis and treatment in the private sector is similar to that for the public sector.