Nigeria health system


Private Health System

  • Formal primary health care (PHC) facilities, secondary, tertiary and informal patent medicine vendors (PMV) and drug sellers
  • 66% of the population seek care from the private sector.
  • Greater density in urban areas compared to rural areas
    • Except the informal PMVs and drug sellers that are often established in rural areas

Primary Health Care Level

  • General health services: preventive, curative, promotive and rehabilitative
  • Facility types: (1) Health Post (2) Primary Health Clinic and (3) Primary Health Care Centres

Care-seeking habits

  • Pilot study (2016) on proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs) outcomes:
    • Caregivers’ preferences for seeking treatment of childhood illnesses are at PPMV (40%) and at public health facility (23%)
    • PPMV improved their correct treatment and referral practices when presented with signs of severe illness from 16% to 88%


  • Completeness of data: gaps in HMIS data
    • Lack of tools and skills/capacity at sub-national levels
    • Makes planning and resource mobilization efforts difficult
  • Limited availability of health workers, and deployment in the rural health facilities
  • Execution capacity
  • Absorptive capacity and late release of funds
  • Donor coordination
  • Lack of necessary referral linkages between the different levels of health care
  • Quality and coverage of service delivery
    • Periphery: limited package of services due to limited trained health workers
  • Commodity logistics systems (6 separate vertical commodities management systems)
  • Supervision of health services and institutional capacity